B1. Air



Emissions - air pollution sources


Stationary air pollution sources (REZZO 1-3)

The amount of emissions from stationary sources (REZZO 1-3) is nationally monitored for basic pollutants: particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC), ammonia (NH3) and other selected pollutants such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants.

Long-run detection and evaluation of the data document the long-term emission reduction in particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides from stationary sources.
This favourable trend results from:



Fig. B1.1 : Major stationary air pollution sources, Prague, 2010

Source: ČHMÚ

Table B1.1 : Total emissions generated by stationary
sources, Prague, 2010 – preliminary data [t.year-1]

2010particulate matterSO2NOx
5691 5072 642

Source: ČHMÚ

Table B1.2 : Number of registered air pollution sources
in Prague, 2010

Category2010
REZZO 1 – extremely large and large sources, total 221
REZZO 2 - mid-sized sources, total, of which: 3 153
Solid fuel 31
Liquid fuel 66
Gaseous fuel 2 661
Others incl. technologies sources 395

Source: ČHMÚ, ČIŽP, MHMP

Fig. B1.2 : Specific emissions generated by stationary sources, Prague, 2000 – 2010
(Particulate matter emission from construction activities have been included since 2008)

Source: ČHMÚ, ČIŽP, MHMP


Mobile air pollution sources (REZZO 4 – transport)

The most significant source of pollutant emissions is road transport, whose negative effect persists. Evaluation of emission inventories of automobile traffic is analysed in the regular two-year interval within the project ATEM – “Model evaluation of air quality in the City of Prague“.

Fig. B1.3 : Emissions from transport

Source: ATEM – Ateliér ekologických modelů, s.r.o.


GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS

The systematic monitoring of greenhouse gases emissions has shorter history in the Czech Republic than that in the case of classic pollutants registered in the Register of Emissions and Air Pollution Sources (see previous section). Greenhouse gases monitored within the conditions of the Czech Republic are as follows: carbon monoxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide(N2O), sulphur fluoride (SF6) and two large groups of gases marked as partially (HFC) and completely (PFC) fluorinated hydrocarbons.

Specific emissions of greenhouse gases in Prague from the categories of sources monitored have been recently at stabilised level of approximately 8 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per capita. Over the last 5-7 years a slight decrease can be observed and re-growth in 2010, when the total greenhouse gas emissions returned beyond 10 million tonnes, while specific emissions reached 7.96 of CO2> equivalent per capita. The greatest proportion forms emissions from electricity generation as well as emissions from the combustion of natural gas and transport and production of district-supplied heat.Specific emissions of greenhouse gases in Prague from the categories of sources monitored have been recently at stabilised level of approximately 8 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per capita. Over the last 5-7 years a slight decrease can be observed and re-growth in 2010, when the total greenhouse gas emissions returned beyond 10 million tonnes, while specific emissions reached 7.96 of CO2 equivalent per capita. The greatest proportion forms emissions from electricity generation as well as emissions from the combustion of natural gas and transport and production of district-supplied heat.

Fig. B1.4 : Total greenhouse gases emissions on the territory of Prague
[thous. t CO2 ekv.]



Source: ČHMÚ, CDV, D. Vácha

Fig. B1.5 : Shares of sources of various categories
of greenhouse gases emissions in Prague

Source: ČHMÚ, CDV, D. Vácha


IMISSIONS – AIR QUALITY


MEASURING NETWORK OF AIR QUALITY MONITORING

The level of air pollution is in objective manner determined by means of monitoring of pollutants oncentration in the ground- level strata of atmosphere within the network of measuring stations. The evaluation of air quality, first of all, compares the measured levels in accordance with limits provided by law. The layout of measuring stations for air pollution monitoring on the territory of Prague in 2010 and representation of organisations performing the monitoring can be seen in Figure B1.6.

Fig. B1.6 : Network of air quality measuring stations, Prague, 2010

Source: ČHMÚ


AREAS WITH POOR AIR QUALITY IN PRAGUE AGLOMERATION

An area with poor air quality means an area within the territorial unit (zones or agglomerations) where is exceeded the immission limit value for the protection of human health for one or more pollutants (sulfur dioxide, particulate matter PM10, carbon dioxide, lead, carbon monoxide and benzene). During the years 2006 - 2010 were OZKO defined 2.7 % (2009) up to 97.9 % (2006) agglomeration area (table B1.3). In 2010 OZKO defined 28.2 % of the territory. The increase in the areas with poor air quality corresponded countrywide deterioration of air quality, probably mainly due to aggravated meteorological and dispersion conditions and as a result of the longest heating season for the past 10 years.

Fig. B1.7 : Marking OZKO based on immission limit values for human health protection,
Prague, 2006 and 2010

Source: ČHMÚ

Table B1.3 : OZKO
(Area with poor air quality)
on the territory of Prague
[% of city area]

Year Share of the territory of Prague
2006 97,9
2007 49,2
2008 9,9
2009 2,7
2010 28,2

Source: ČHMÚ


SELECTED POLLUTANTS

The most sensitively monitored pollutants with the densest network of measuring stations belong air-borne dust (suspended particulates PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

PARTICULATES PM10

In 2010 it came again to the deterioration of air quality in the case of suspended particles PM10 ocompared to previous years. Pollution caused by suspended particles PM10 remains one of the main problems of maintaining air quality in accordance with legislation. Immission limit value of average 24-hour of PM10 concentration (50 μg.m-3, permitted exceeding 35 times) was in Prague in 2010 exceeded more than 35 times on 10 locations out of 17 (in 2009, 3 out of 17). PM10> immission annual limit value (40 μg.m-3) in 2010 was exceeded at one monitoring station out of 21 (in 2009 at no station).

Fig. B1.8 : Trends in yearly characteristics of the fraction PM10, Praha, 1996–2010

Source: ČHMÚ


Table B1.4 : Stations with the highest numbers of exceedances of 24-hour limit value for PM10, Prague, 2010

No. Locality Station category pLV Max. 24-hour concentration [μg.m-3] 36th highest 24-hour concentration [μg.m-3]
1 Pha5-Řeporyje B/S/RA 62 120,0 68,0
2 Pha5-Smíchov T/U/RC 71 117,5 65,1
3 Pha2-Legerova (hot spot) T/U/RC 56 142,0 62,0
4 Pha8-Karlín T/U/C 59 107,5 61,4
5 Pha10-Vršovice T/U/R 53 106,0 60,7
6 Pha9-Vysočany T/U/CR 47 155,3 59,3
7 Pha10-Průmyslová T/U/IC 48 132,7 57,8
8 Pha5-Mlynářka T/U/RC 47 99,9 56,6
9 Pha6-Suchdol B/S/R 41 111,6 54,5
10 Pha4-Libuš B/S/R 36 123,8 50,9

Source: ČHMÚ


Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

Unlike the previous two years, increased the number of stations where the limit of average annual concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exceeded. There was also a slight growth in annual average NO2 concentration at all measuring stations in Prague, except one.

At the measuring station Prague 2 - Legerova in year 2010 was recorded, as in the past years, a high number of exceedances (56) of the hourly immission limit value of the nitrogen dioxide concentration of 200 μg.m-3 which proves the great trouble of the City of Prague caused by traffic taken through its downtown.

There is an annual exceedance of nitrogen dioxide immission limit value in Prague also mainly on traffic-exposed locations. From the total number of 20 stations, there was an exceedance of nitrogen dioxide immission limit value (40 μg.m-3) at 5 locations.

Fig. B1.9 : Stations with the highest values of the yearly average concentration of NO2, Praha, 2010

Source: ČHMÚ

Table B1.5 : Stations with the highest numbers of 24-hour limit exceedance of NO2, Prague, 2010

No. Locality Station category Yearly concentration [μg.m-3]
1 Pha2-Legerova (hot spot) T/U/RC 67,3
2 Pha5-Svornosti T/U/IR 59,4
3 Pha5-Smíchov T/U/RC 44,9
4 Pha9-Vysočany T/U/CR 43,1
5 Pha1-nám. Republiky B/U/C 40,5

Source: ČHMÚ


Model-based evaluation of air quality on the territory of Prague (Project of ATEM )

The project was launched in 1992. Since 1996, the project continues in two basic ways - regular emissive and air pollution updating in two-year cycles, which allow to continuously monitor the development of air pollution in Prague over a longer period of time and processing alternative model calculations, i.e. evaluation of the impact of all current and predicted changes of the air quality in the region. Another phase of the two-year model-based evaluation was completed in 2010. The outputs for the selected monitored pollutants are shown in the following cartograms.

Fig. B1.10 : Average yearly concentrations of selected pollutants, 2009 – 2010

Source: ATEM

Programme Clean Energy Prague

The programme has been running since 1994. The aim of provided grants is a motivational effect on the owners or tenants of the apartments to transform the original heating systems (especially the ones for solid fuel) for environmentally friendly heating mediums and utilization of renewable energy sources. The total amount of the grants in 2010 amounted to CZK 11,999,650 (268 supported applications for 573 flats, of which fuel gas – 411, the heat pump – 30, photovoltaics – 123, solar collectors – 6 and biomass – 2 flats). The programme, along with other programmes for air recovery, contributes to the decline of the emissions of pollutants on the territory of the Capital City of Prague.

Obr B1.11 : Structure of subsidies drawing in 2010

Source: MHMP