|3 URBAN AND SUBURBAN LANDSCAPE|
|3.1 RECORDS OF SURFACE TYPES AND GREENERY - SURFACES AND GREENERY REGISTER|
|3.2 NATURE AND LANDSCAPE PROTECTION, REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY SYSTEM|
|3.3 URBAN GREENERY|
|3.4 FORESTS IN THE TERRITORY OF PRAGUE|
|3.5 MAPPING OF VEGETATION IN PRAGUE USING AERIAL SPECTROZONAL PHOTOGRAPHS|
|3.6 CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION OF SOIL|
|3.7 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOMONITORING|
|3.8 AEROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING IN PRAGUE BETWEEN 1993 AND 1996|
The Information System on Prague Environment (IOZIP) also comprises a Surfaces and Greenery register. Data on different land lots based on the Real Estate Cadastral Register records has been accumulated for several years (since 1989). Some of the information, divided by the cadastral area, has already been presented in previous yearbooks. Last year, the data was presented for the first time for the entire territory of the City of Prague (approximately 260 000 land lots in 112 cadastral areas, covering 1 500 1: 1 000 map sheets). Early in 1995, IMIP issued a separate publication dedicated to surfaces and greenery in Prague.
In 1995, a second phase of the project began. It consisted in updating data on some 56 000 land lots selected on the basis of changes in the Real Estate Cadastral Register. The results are shown in the figures below. Comparing the two project stages, the most significant differences are those arising from border changes and affecting the sizes of the cadastral areas. Dropping figures in the "Other areas" category are generally made up for by increased built-up and/or agricultural land areas. In most cases, the former are represented by completed housing projects or family houses with a garden.
There are 11 nature parks within the city limits, which occupy larger areas whose original natural character has been preserved. These in turn comprise the most important small-sized valuable sites enjoying a special protection status. In this respect, the most important nature parks are Prokopské and Dalejské Valleys, Sarka - Lysolaje, Drahan - Troja, Rokytka and Ricanka. The Prokopské and Dalejské Valleys nature park was the last to be declared, but it is undoubtedly the most important one at the same time. It comprises many sites with a plethora of rare plant species and many valuable geological objects. At the same time, the area is under tremendous pressure from the nearby Barrandov and Western Township Housing Schemes.
Experience with the implementation of a building closure has shown that the procedure of issuing approvals by a nature protection authority for each and every activity to take place in the territory of the Prokopské and Dalejské Valleys Nature Park pursuant to Act No. 114/1992 of the Law Gazette (Nature and Landscape Protection Act) and Decree No. 7/1992 of the Municipality of Prague, whereby the Prokopské and Dalejské Valleys Nature Park was established and conditions of the building closure were specified, is both time-consuming and lengthy. Too vague and general conditions of the building closure lacking any specific rules have resulted in unnecessary clashes of the state administration and the general public. Given the necessity of an objective evaluation of areas and district with an exaceptional natural or landscape potential, a detailed natural scientific assessment and an analysis of civilization impacts for the entire the Prokopské and Dalejské Valleys Nature Park and Divoka Sarka were undertaken to provide information for nature protection authorities in charge of preparing a draft of a local subsystem of the Regional Environmental Stability System (in Czech ancronymized as USES).
Based on the new detailed natural scientific
survey, the objective was to obtain clear-cut supporting data
that would permit to determine which building projects,
activities or uses can prove destructive, detrimental or
disturbing for protected landscape phenomena or exceptional
natural values, including internationally recognized geological
sites (geological stratotypes).
List of cadastral areas in Prague
Land lot types, Prague, 1995
Surface types, Prague, 1995
Greenery types, Prague, 1995
First areas in the territory of Prague, which enjoy a special status of protection, were established in 1964, others have followed suit. In the course of time, there have been numerous changes; land lots have been divided, mergers and divisions of cadaster area have even resulted in land lots being renumbered. Consequently, works aimed at checking and identifying land lots which fall into official protected areas have begun in cooperation with IMIP. These are based on data from the Real Estate Register. The inventory completion deadline has been postponed till 1997.
Overview of small-sized protected areas in Prague
|No.||Name (in Czech)||Cate-
|Decree||No.||Name (in Czech)||Cate-
|1||Baba||PP||4/82||45||Opukovy lom u P. Kopaniny||PP||5/88|
|2||Barrandovské skaly||NPP||4/82||46||Ortocerovy lumek||PP||9861/76*|
|3||Bazantnice v Satalicich||PP||200/88*||47||Pecka||PP||5/88|
|4||Bila skala||PP||5/88||48||Petrinské skalky||PP||5/88|
|5||Bohnické údoli||PP||4/82||49||Pitkovicka stran||PP||13360/68 II/2*|
|6||Branicka skala||PP||5/68||50||Pocernicky rybnik||PP||5/88|
|7||Cihelna v Bazantnici||PP||5/88||51||Pod Skolou||PP||5/88|
|8||Cikanka I-II||NPP||5/88||52||Pod Zvahovem||PP||5/68|
|11||Cimické údoli||PP||5/68||55||Podolsky profil||PP||5/88|
|13||Divoka Sarka||PR||12/64||57||Prazsky zlom||PP||5/88|
|14||Dolni Sarka||PP||4/82||58||Prokopské údoli||PR||25.533/78*|
|18||Hrncirské louky||PP||5/88||62||Rohoznik (lom v Dubci)||PP||5/88|
|19||Hvizdalka||PP||5/88||63||Roztocky haj - Tiché údoli||PR||14.200/88*|
|21||Chuchelsky haj||PR||3/82||65||Sedlecké skaly||PP||4/82|
|25||Kalvarie v Motole||PP||4/82||69||Stresovické skaly||PP||5/68|
|28||Kralovska obora||PP||5/88||72||U branického pivovaru||PP||5/88|
|30||Ladvi||PP||3/82||74||U Nového mlyna||NPP||3/82|
|31||Letensky profil||PP||5/88||75||U Zavisti||PP||5/88|
|32||Litoznice||PP||5/88||76||Udoli Kunratického potoka||PP||5/88|
|33||Lochkovsky profil||NPP||5/88||77||Udoli Unetického potoka||PR||5/88|
|34||Meandry Botice||PP||5/68||78||V Hrobech||PP||5/88|
|35||Milicovsky les a rybniky||PP||5/88||79||V Piskovne||PR||5/88|
|36||Modranska rokle||PP||5/88||80||Velka skala||PP||5/68|
|40||Nad zavodistem||PP||5/88||84||Xaverovsky haj||PP||1/82|
|42||Obora v Uhrinevsi||PP||3/82||86||Zlatnice||PP||5/68|
|44||Opatrilka - Cerveny lom||PP||3/82||88||Zeleznicni zarez||PP||5/88|
Category: PP - valuable nature site, PR - nature reservation, NPP - valuable nature site of nationwide importance
* asterisks mark decrees of the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic, the others have been declared by decrees of the Municipality of Prague
Source: MHMP, AOPK
Overview of nature parks in Prague
|Name of the nature park (in Czech)||Decree||Name of the nature park (in Czech)||Decree|
|Botic - Milicov||3/84||Rokytka||8/90|
|Ricanka||3/84||Modranska rokle - Cholupice||3/91|
|Radotinsko - Chuchelsky haj||8/90||Kosire - Motol||3/91|
|Sarka - Lysolaje||8/90||Klanovice - Cihadla||3/91|
|Drahan - Troja||8/90||Prokopské and Dalejské údoli||7/93|
|Hostivar - Zabehlice||8/90|
Note: Nature parks used to be known as calm zones. As a rule, they occupy larger areas whose original natural character has been preserved, including the most important small-sized valuable sites enjoying a special protection status.
Principles of the Greenery System Maintenance in the City of Prague
Based on the Urban Greenery System (see the previous yearbook), a draft of The Principles of the Greenery System Maintenance in the City of Prague has been prepared and approved by the City Council of Prague. The documents proposes and deals with Prague system of greenery, including its ownership relations, financing and division of competencies between administrative districts of Prague and the City Council of the capital city.
Greenery System Categories. The status of greenery areas in the structure of the city varies depending on the level of their protection and development. In terms of their environmental importance and the development of the existing greenery system, they are divided into four categories, namely:
I. Areas of extraordinary importance (total area 4 515 hectares)II. Areas of city-wide importance (total area 1 021 hectares)III. Areas of local importance (total area 975 hectares)IV. Complementary areas.
The above classification system does not distinguish among different types of greenery (such as forests, parks, cemeteries, protected areas etc.) as laid down in the Land-Use Plan or the Greenery Master Plan of the City of Prague. Greenery is perceived as a single natural and urbanistic element.
The classification system plays a crucial role in determining priorities insofar as the process of revitalizing urban greenery is concerned. The organization of maintenance, revitalization and development of areas of extraordinary importance (Category I) in possession of the City of Prague falls into the purview of elected bodies of Prague. The executive authority is the Municipality of Prague. The revitalization process has been moving along in close cooperation with administrative districts of the city.
Ownership relations affect the management, maintenance and access to the areas, financing of their maintenance and development, as well as their uses and layouts. Those of extraordinary importance, i.e. falling into Category I, remain in the ownership of the City of Prague, those in Categories II to IV will be entrusted to respective administrative districts of the city pursuant to a Decree of the Municipality of Prague.
Financing. Financial requirements of the greenery maintenance depend on the maintenance demands and intensity. The latter in turn depend on the nature and location of the area in question. In this respect, there are four different maintenance intensity categories which generally (but not always) match the importance categories.
Division of competencies between the Municipality of Prague and Prague's administrative districts in exercising greenery management tasks. Basic maintenance is provided by the administrative district in the territory of which the area in question is located. Insofar as areas of extraordinary importance are concerned, their maintenance is based on agreements between the respective administrative district and the City of Prague. In most cases, it is necessary to partly or even completely restore both the vegetation and technical elements. In such cases, it is first necessary to analyze the current state of affairs (to make an inventory) and propose an appropriate revitalization approach accordingly.
Problems of conflicts of interests between street alleys and utility lines
The most serious problem encountered in connection with the renewal of street alleys in Prague consists in obtaining approvals of operators and administrators of utility lines. For example, the Green Circle initiative launched a project named "Restoration of Greenery in Lublanska " in 1995, but cutting through the red tape and obtaining all approvals needed to replant the alley which had previously lined the street took more than a year and resulted in an enormous increase of project costs.
This year, the Environmental Department of the Municipality of Prague has been renovating alleys in Chodska (Prague 2) and will recommend a restoration of alleys in Marianské Hradby (Prague 1) and Spalova (Prague 6). At the same time, there will be some additional tree-planting in street alleys in the ninth district of Prague. Difficult negotiations with operators and administrators of underground utility lines have resulted in the planting having been postponed from spring to autumn. It must be noted that there are existing alleys on the streets in question, but their condition has deteriorated to an extent which threatens both pedetsrians and vehicular traffic. If any of the operators/administrators disagrees, the alley will have to be felled without any replacement. Given that the concentration of utility lines and networks in Prague is very high, most of the existing alleys can easily end as timber. The most frequent complication is the location of SPT Telecom cables; the company (forced to comply with standards prescribing the layout, spacing and arrangement of different utility lines in the ground) often fails to observe requirements stipulated in land-use rulings and places its cables very close to tree trunks and roots.
Use of groundwater in Petrin Hill for irrigating the Ruzova and Kinsky Gardens
The idea of making use of substantial groundwater sources in Petrin Hill, previously tapped by underground adits and uselessly discharged into the rainwater collection system, was picked up by the Environmental Department of the Municipality of Prague in l995. The reasons were twofold: economic (fairly high price of water from the mains, sewage collection fees), and a city-wide need to minimize surface runoff as much as possible.
The proposed utilization (based on a study by the company Nautilus) assumes that the pumping regimen at Adit XI and the so-called Upper Pond in the Kinsky Garden will be modified in a manner allowing to make use of a nearby (presently unused) water reservoir, to control the flow rate into the pond, and to distribute water as necessary - also into a pond from which it will be pumped into an automatic summertime sprinkler system.
Forests account for approximately 9 % of the territory of the City of Prague (4 880 hectares) and are found predominantly in suburban parts. All forests within Prague's city limits fall into a category of so-called special-purpose forests (recreational and suburban). In addition, there are forests whose purpose is to protect (those growing on extraordinarily unfavourable sites). In most cases, the latter are represented by forests growing on steep slopes, frequently passing into rock outcrops or escarpments.
The forest management and forestry practices are tailored to suit the nature of suburban forests, consisting in more subtle interventions, replanting on small areas only, extended clearing intervals and restoration periods. Production of timber is not the highest priority; instead, non-productive forest functions are emphasized.
The health status of the forests is directly proportional to immissions produced by transportation and traffic, high numbers of visitors and other negative impacts. The worst-affected are spruce forests, frequently on the verge of utter destruction. Older oak forests suffer from tracheomycosis, but the disease seems to have been retreating recently.
The major owner of forests is the City of Prague (approximately 2 000 hectares), followed by the state (represented by the company Lesy Ceské republiky - Forests of the Czech Republic), and some 350 minor owners. Insofar as the forests in private hands are concerned, the most serious problem consists in ensuring that they will continue to perform their non-productive functions.
On January 1, 1996, a new law, Act No. 289/1995 of the Law Gazette (Forest Act) was passed. It had taken almost four years to produce, as finding a compromise between generally conflicting interests of private owners and opinions of most forestry experts.
Unlike its predecessor, which emphasized the forest user and gave the state and the forest owner quite a minor role, the new Forest Act goes a long way to expand the owners' rights (and also responsibilities) and to give them more independence in forest management. There are still some doubts as to whether the new act will succeed in introducing and establishing advanced forestry practices comparable to other European countries, as it can only rely on self-discipline of the owners, which it takes for granted. The new Forest Act has also given many more tasks to state forest administration authorities at District Offices, i.e. also the Municipality of Prague.
Categories, damage and exploitation of forests in the territory of Prague
|Economically exploited||thous. ha||0||0.17|
|Damage due to air pollution|
|Percentage of damaged forests||%||100||100|
|Random exploitation||thous. m3||4.3||3.3|
|of which pest-caused||thous. m3||2.1||1.7|
In 1994 and 1995, the Municipal Office of the City of Prague ordered a mapping of the vegetation of selected units based on aerial spectrozonal photographs. The purpose of the work was to obtain sound information on the quality of the vegetation cover of Prague in a digitized form. The initial objective was to photograph the entire territory of Prague, and assess it as a whole as of a single date.
The previous yearbook presented information on activities conducted in 1994 and 1995 for the Municipal Office of the City of Prague. Owing to lack of funding and difficulties with finding a suitable and competent supplier to carry on with the project, the present yearbook can only furnish the results of a project conducted by Aquatest a.s. in the territory of the eleventh district of Prague.
In 1995, the Administrative Department of the Municipal Office of Prague 11 ordered a geobotanical interpretation of aerial photographs of the territory of its district of Prague. The analysis was to focus on a geobotanical inventory of vegetation, waste dumps and man-made grounds, including possible leaching occurrences and an assessment of the health status of permanent (particularly forest) vegetation.
The customer (Municipal Office of Prague 11) provided 1: 10 000 aerial spectrozonal photographs taken in 1994 by ARGUS. The photographs were interpreted and digitized by Aquatest a.s., Prague. The results were plotted into digitized topographic maps of the Institute of Municipal Informatics of the City of Prague.
The area of study covered the whole territory
administered by the Municipal Office of Prague 11, i.e. the
cadastral areas of Chodov, Haje, Ujezd and Seberov. The
photographs were evaluated and the results used to compile drafts
of vegetation maps, which were finalized and supplemented by
subsequent field surveys. In addition to allowing for
syntaxonomical classification, the method permitted to
distinguish alien forest growths, to delineate areas of conifers
on recently forested sites, to identify waste dumps and assess
their impact on their surroundings, and to identify zero-vitality
forest growths. The health state of wood species was evaluated on
the basis of different colours and physiognomy. The information
obtained from the aerial photographs and by the field surveys was
digitized at GIS.
A specimen of the vegetation map - Prague 11