|4.1 WASTE-RELATED RECORDS|
|4.2 COLLECTION OF HAZARDOUS HOUSEHOLD WASTE (PILOT PROJECT)|
|4.3 LANDFILLS AND HISTORICAL POLLUTION AND WASTE-DUMPING SITES|
|4.4 WASTE DISPOSAL ENTERPRISE, HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL|
Data on the yearly production of waste in Prague and based on the OECD classification as regards its origin is an output from the Waste Information System operated by the Czech Environmental Institute. The data for 1994 was obtained from waste registration forms sent to the Municipal Office of the City of Prague pursuant to Decree of the Czech Government No. 513/1992 of the Law Gazette, stipulating detailed terms and conditions of waste management and handling. The data contains errors the elimination of which should be made possible by a new Waste Act (currently being drafted) and related legal standards.
In addition, the chapter presents information on the waste composition in Prague based on the Categorization and Cataloging of Waste (Decree of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Instalment 69/1991 of the Law Gazette) and the average household waste composition based on a methodology prepared by KZT s.r.o.
Waste Production Classification Using OECD Methodology, Prague 1994
|Category||Total waste [t]||Of which hazardous [t]|
|Agricultural and forestry waste||6||0|
|Total industrial waste||61 094||30 641|
|- food industry||6 774||40|
|- textile industry||40||0|
|- woodworking industry||678||17|
|- paper and pulp industry||3 686||462|
|- polygraphic industry||3 354||488|
|- chemical industry||9 324||9 223|
|- rubber - and plastic-processing industry||663||124|
|- petrochemical industry||759||759|
|- metalworking industry||7 692||3 155|
|- mineral waste (not including metals)||13 674||1 978|
|- miscellaneous waste||14 450||14 395|
|Power industry waste||144 152||26 692|
|Municipal waste||320 000||-|
|Other waste||53 176||1 515|
|TOTAL||578 428||58 848|
Source: CEU, MHMP
Production of Household Waste Based on the Categorization and Cataloging of Waste
|91||Municipal waste (MO)||320|
|91102||Household waste proper (HW)||217|
|91102||Other municipality-produced waste similar to household waste||55|
|917||Park and garden waste||24|
Source: CEU, MHMP
Material composition of household waste
Source: CEU, MHMP
Step by step, Prague has been introducing a system of collecting sorted components of municipal waste, namely paper, glass, plastics, and hazardous waste.
Most of the waste produced in the territory of Prague is disposed of by dumping it in one of the waste disposal or landfill sites serving the city, namely: Prague - Dablice (operated by A.S.A s.r.o.), Benatky on Jizera (operated by SOH s.r.o.), Vodslivy (operated by Polyservis s.r.o.p), Lodin (operated by W.A.S.A s.r.o.p), Vrbicany (operated by EUROSUP s.r.o.) and others.
Only a small portion of Prague waste is incinerated in incineration plants burning industrial waste and waste produced by health care facilities in the territory of the city.
The Prague - Malesice incineration plant, designed to burn municipal and similar waste, should commence operation in 1997.
Between October 1994 and September 1996, a pilot project of collecting small chemical waste produced by households was undertaken. Responsible for the project was the Department of Energy and Waste Management of the Municipal Office of Prague, in cooperation with ECOBOS s.r.o. Hazardous waste, which is one of the components of standard household waste, was collected in Cimice and the Bohnice Housing Scheme. In the second year of the project, the territorial coverage was expanded to include a part of Liben, the Invalidovna Housing Estate and Karlin.
The collection made use of a special truck operated by a trained crew. Different types of the waste were first put into plastic boxes and then into a special container. The waste consisted mainly of spent batteries, pharmaceutical products, used oils, photographic chemicals, pesticides, consumer chemical products, residues of paints and varnishes, contaminated packages, solvents etc.
There were two alternative ways to collect the hazardous waste. The first one consisted in a so-called "door to door" collection (in districts comprising mainly family houses), the other in stopping at designated collection points (in districts comprising apartment blocks). The service was given a very warm reception by the general public.
A project monitoring the quantity and composition of household waste in the City of Prague (KZT, 1994) helped to determine the percentage of hazardous substances contained in it, which is 0.6% of weight. Given that an average citizen of Prague produces some 180 kg of household waste every year, this value translates into approximately 1 kg of problematic or risky materials. The results obtained in the course of the pilot project will be used to design a city-wide hazardous household waste collection system for Prague.
Collection of hazardous household waste, October 1994 till September 1996
Source: ENO MHMP, ECOBOS
Work on a pilot project aimed at identifying, mapping out and making an inventory of landfills and historical pollution and waste dumping sites (hereinafter HPWDS) in selected parts of the eighth and ninth districts of Prague was completed early in 1995. The project provided knowledge and information enabling the Environmental Department of the Municipality of Prague to properly formulate terms and condition of a public tender announced in the end of 1995.
The winning bidder for the next stage was
Aquatest - Stavebni geologie a.s. (Building Geology) Early in
1996, the first phase covering selected areas of the fifth
district of Prague began (which was completed in September 1996).
In a territory comprising twelve 1: 5 000 map sheets, the project
has identified approximately 120 landfills, historical pollution
and waste-dumping sites, and proven or potential
pollution/contamination sites. The territory which the first
phase was dealing with can be characterized as having a
relatively low level of landfills and HPWDS, in which landfills
prevail over proven or potential pollution/contamination sites.
The second phase was undertaken in the end of 1996, covering
selected areas of Prague 5, Prague 6 and Prague 13 and comprising
thirteen 1: 5 000 map sheets.
The results of the work were summarized in completed Registration Forms and in databases of landfills and historical pollution and waste-dumping sites. Moreover, all the identified landfills and HPWDS have been plotted into 1: 5 000 maps and photographed. The Registration Form also specifies the contamination level (if exceeding the so-called Limit C requiring sanitization measures).
The purpose of the whole exercise is not merely to take stock of historical pollution and waste-dumping sites, but rather to safeguard or liquidate them. The relevant information will be handed over to District Offices which should take over the records for the territory falling into their respective purviews. The City of Prague will arrange and finance the safeguarding and sanitization of landfills and HPWDS located on the land in its ownership. Those situated on the land owned by other legal entities or natural persons will be resolved by administrative proceedings.
The terms and conditions governing waste management are stipulated in Act No. 238/1991of the Law Gazette (Waste Act) and a number of additional legal standards and regulations setting forth rights and obligations of legal entities and natural persons in connection with waste from its production to safe disposal. State authorities give approvals needed to dispose of and deal in waste, check compliance with the above terms and conditions, and enforce the compliance by means of sanctions.
Pursuant to Article 5, Paragraph 1, of Act No. 311/1991 of the Law Gazette, on state administration in the field of waste management, which took effect on August 9, 1991, an approval of District Offices (and the Environmental Department of the Municipal Office of the City of Prague, insofar as Prague is concerned) is needed to:
Since Act No. 238/1991of the Law Gazette (Waste Act) took effect till June 30, 1996, the Environmental Department has issued 1 347 administrative rulings in above matters.
In general, there are the following trends in the field of waste management and disposal: