B4.2 COMPLETE SYSTEM OF MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT WITH SORTING OF REUSABLE COMPONENTS OF MUNICIPAL WASTE

B4.2.1 System of municipal waste collection in Prague

In 2006 the implementation of the Project of Waste Management on the Territory of the City of Prague has been running for the ninth year. The Project principle approved by the Decision of the City Assembly No. 47 of 1996 is the entire City covering complete system of sorting of municipal waste. The waste sorted fall into the following categories of waste components:

Except the municipal waste collection also the retaking of selected house equipments has been launched.

The inhabitants have the option to dispose respective components of municipal waste using the kerbside collecting system or delivery system in the ways as follows:

Fig. B4.1 The organisation of the collecting of mixed and sorted waste collecting by means of authorised companies

Figure B4.1 The organisation of the collecting of mixed and sorted waste collecting by means of authorised companies

Source: OOP MHMP

Tab. B4.5 Production from the waste disposal [kt]

Year

Municipal
waste

Disposed

Reuse

Land-filled

Total

Thermal -
energy use

Material reuse

sorted out*

iron from cinder

1998

231.6

94.5

138.0

129.1

8.0

2.0

1999

240.9

31.3

209.6

193.6

16.0

3.1

2000

251.1

59.2

191.9

166.9

25.0

2.9

2001

257.2

31.9

225.3

196.3

29.0

2.9

2002**

281.8

42.5

239.3

202.0

37.3

3.3

2003

292.9

43.4

249.5

205.4

44.1

3.6

2004

305.0

42.4

262.6

208.1

54.5

2.8

2005

319.1

54.0

265.1

201.2

63.9

3.4

2006

326.4

53.7

277.7

200.5

77.2

3.3

* including hazardous waste
** amount of flood sludge is not included

Source: OOP MHMP


B4.2.2 Sorted collection of waste (paper, glass, plastics, and beverage card-boxes)

The sorted waste collection on the territory of Prague is provided or by means of the kerbside collecting system, vehicle collecting system, and a combined system.

The citizens mostly use the kerbside collecting system, in which sorted waste is turned into collecting vessels (containers), with upper and bottom discharge and 1,100 to 3,200 litres in volume. The number of collecting vessels is stable at present. The number of collecting point of the kerbside collecting system is 3,200. If larger capacity is required then the frequency of emptying is increased.

The vehicle collecting system is provided as combined with the kerbside collecting system on the territory of the Prague Historical Monument reserve. In this system the plastic collecting vessels, 120 to 240 litres in volume are located directly in households. There should about 1,200 of such collecting points. Yet the establishing of such collecting point depends on the consent of the landlord so collecting vessels are allocated into over 1,000 premises.

In 2004 the pilot project of sorted beverage card-boxes collection was launched. In 2006, when this project came to a current regime of separated waste vehicle collecting system, around 1,660 collecting points of separated waste (half of all collecting points of separated waste were) were set up with special composed collecting vessels, 240 litres or 1,100 litres in volume. Furthermore the collecting vessels are in all collecting yards of the City of Prague. The number of sorted beverage card-boxes collection reached 424 tonnes in 2006. The rising was caused by increased share of collecting vessels, 1,100 l volume in total.

Pilot project of sorted clear glass collection started in December 2004. In 2006 there were total 828 tonnes of clear glass collected.

The collecting points are determined by City Districts upon the consultancy with the collecting companies. The number of collecting points corresponds to the number of inhabitants and type of development of the area. Each collecting point shall have the permit for special use of the road (if it is located on a road – on the driving lane, on the pavement, etc.).

Tab. B4.6 The amount of sorted paper, glass, plastics, and beverage card-boxes [tonnes]

Year

Paper

Coloured glass

Clear glass

Plastics

Beverage
card-boxes

Total*

Paper from
elementary
schools

1998

3,983

2,248

 

684

 

6,915

750

1999

8,205

3,018

 

2,172

 

13,395

851

2000

11,152

5,039

 

3,586

 

19,777

951

2001

11,501

6,016

 

4,623

 

22,140

921

2002

13,738

6,711

 

5,081

 

25,530

1,117

2003

16,097

7,436

 

6,040

 

29,573

1,251

2004

18,003

7,909

2

6,596

9

32,519

1,411

2005

19,214

8,399

432

7,164

171

35,380

1,597

2006

22,244

9,119

828

8,114

424

40,729

1,571

* sum of sorted amount of paper, glass, plastics, and beverage card-boxes (except paper from elementary schools)

Source: OOP MHMP

Fig. B4.2 The amount of sorted paper, glass, plastics, beverage card-boxes, and biological waste [tonnes]

Figure B4.2 The amount of sorted paper, glass, plastics, beverage card-boxes, and biological waste

Source: OOP MHMP


B4.2.3 Sorted collection of hazardous waste

The hazardous waste collection, that means the collection of solvents, acids, alkalis, photo-chemicals, pesticides, incandescent lamps and other mercury-containing waste, oils and greases (except for edible ones), paints, printing dyes, adhesives, resins, detergents and degreasing agents, unusable medicines, has been carried out at several levels on the territory of Prague as follows:

The mobile collection is operated from March to November of the calendar year. The hazardous waste collection is carried out mostly from 15:00 to 19:00 o’clock; upon the request of City Districts it is also carried out from 8:00 to 12:00 at certain localities. The collection is carried out three times a year in City Districts. The number of collecting traces and stops corresponds to the number of inhabitants of the particular City District. Vehicle crew collect hazardous waste from citizens at certain place in certain time.

The stationary collection comprises of twenty-two stationary collecting points which are operated year-round where the inhabitants may return hazardous waste. Ten collecting yards of the City of Prague belong among 22 stationary collections.

The additional collection of unused medicines and mercury-filled thermometers is carried out in 260 pharmacies, which are involved into the system organised by the City. On the implementation of this type collection the Prague City hall cooperates with the Czech Chamber of Pharmacists. Inhabitants may return unusable or expired medicines at all pharmacies on the territory of the City of Prague that means also in those, which do not utilise the City system.

The additional collection of batteries and accumulators was launched in September 2001. Special 35-litre collecting containers (red standardised containers) were allocated at the Prague City Hall, premises of Local Authorities of City Districts, and at elementary and secondary schools where the Prague inhabitants may discard spent batteries and accumulators.

At the beginning of 2005 the Prague City Hall signed an agreement with the company of ECOBAT pursuant to which batteries are collected within the returning of batteries. Now there are about 440 points that retake accumulators and batteries.

Tab. B4.7 The hazardous waste amount collected in 1998–2006

Collection method

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Stationary collection

63

85

81

131

196

236

271

391

Mobile collection

117

112

93

83

107

92

82

46

32

Stationary and mobile collection in total

117

175

178

164

238

308

318

317

423

Collection of refrigerators

25

57

123

348

467

491

409

ZpO*

Collection of TV and PC monitors

100

ZpO

Collection of drugs, medicines,
and mercury-filled thermometers

22

32

31

34

36

33

48

45

Collection of batteries and accumulators

1

7

8

8

ZpO

Total

117

222

267

319

627

799

850

874

468

* ZpO – collection and registration within re-taking (see the next Chapter)

Source: OOP MHMP


B4.2.4 Re-taking products

On the basis of new Act No. 185/2001 Code on waste and amending certain other acts in wording of the following regulations (hereinafter as “the act on waste”) there is the duty established for entities, which import or produce determined products, to provide for their re-taking for free from consumers.

The re-taking covers products as follows (Section 38 and the following of the act on waste):

These products are still significantly represented in material flux of municipal waste, namely in hazardous components of municipal waste, the Prague City Hall has been organising their collection as long as since 1994. It can be stated for the sake of information that mineral oils and oils from bituminous minerals, other than raw ones, electric accumulators, galvanic cells and batteries, incandescent and fluorescent lamps, refrigerators used in households, which the citizens sorted out account for about 70–75 % of the total weight of the sorted hazardous waste.

The duty of re-taking was determined by law for all aforementioned products, except for refrigerators since 23rd February 2002. The duty of re-taking of electrical equipment was established differently from 13th August 2005.

Tab. B4.8 Ex-service electric equipment collection within re-taking [tonnes]

Equipments re-taken

2005*

2006

Refrigerators

171

635.0

TV and PC monitors

83

442.0

Collection of batteries and accumulators

6

7.0

Luminous sources

0.8

Total

260

1,084.8

* collection was launched on 13th August 2005

Source: OOP MHMP

The hazardous waste production was reduces by the amount of batteries and electrical scrap mentioned in the Table.


B4.2.5 Collecting yards

The part of the integrated waste management system of the City of Prague is its sorting of municipal waste. Except broadcast sorting of glass, paper, plastics, and beverage card-boxes, the network of collecting yards of the City is established. Collection yards enable to return selected types of waste at larger amount and in wide range of commodities. These are bulky waste bulky waste, waste from greenery, wood, demolition waste, metals, electro-technical scrap, paper, glass, plastics, and hazardous components of municipal waste. Moreover, re-taking points for discarded electrical and electronic equipment were established on collecting yards.

Natural entities with permanent residence on the territory of Prague can turn waste there for free (except of tyres and demolition waste over 1 m3), legal entities and natural entities with trade licence have this service for fee. The opening hours in collecting yards are: Monday–Friday from 8:30 to 18:00 o’clock (in winter time till 17:00 o’clock), Saturday from 8:30 to 15:00 o’clock.

At present the City of Prague operates ten collecting yards as follows:

The collecting yard operation is provided by direct contract with the operating company or by means of a City District, which receives the annual purpose-bound, non-investment subsidy for the operation from the Prague City Hall.

Authorities of some City Districts, as Prague 4, and Prague 6, also operate their own collecting yards. The allocation of collecting yards, conditions and terms of operation, selection of waste types, opening hours as well as financial coverage are in full responsibility of respective local authorities of the corresponding City Districts.

Fig. B4.3 Weight percentage of respective types of waste at the Prague’s collecting yards in 2006

Figure B4.3 Weight percentage of respective types of waste at the Prague’s collecting yards in 2006

Source: OOP MHMP

Fig. B4.4 The amount of waste returned and frequency of visits to the Prague’s collecting yards in 2000–2006

Figure B4.4 The amount of waste returned and frequency of visits to the Prague’s collecting yards in 2000–2006

Source: OOP MHMP


B4.2.6 Mixed waste

Provision for the collecting container large enough for mixed municipal waste was duty of the landlords or administrators of real estate. The total number of collecting containers at respective premises was approx. 112,000 pieces. The mixed waste produced also includes contribution from persons not having permanent residence in Prague. Their number is estimated to approx. 300,000.

Tab. B4.9 Production of mixed waste

Year

Waste amount [thousand tonnes]

Annual increase

1998

210.5

1999

208.6

0.85 %

2000

209.9

0.57 %

2001

211.8

0.95 %

2002

226.7

6.99 %

2003

230.2

1.54 %

2004

231.0

0.35 %

2005

234.7

1.02 %

2006

237.7

1.29 %

Source: OOP MHMP

Christmas tree collection

Citizens have the opportunity to leave their Christmas trees next to mixed waste containers. Collecting companies provide their collection within the mixed waste collection. Christmas trees are brought to composting facility for further treatment in localities, where the pilot project of collecting of biological waste has been carried out.


B4.2.7 Mixed bulky waste

The citizens may turn bulky waste into large-capacity containers (VOKs) with minimum volume 9 m3. The Prague City Hall reimburses the installation of approximately 8,800 large-capacity containers per year.

The VOKs are allocated to the City Districts depending on their respective population and every City District has annually as minimum 24 VOKs at its disposal that means on average 1 VOK emptying per fortnight, to prevent uncontrolled dumpsite formation. Some City Districts place further VOKs at their expense and decision. The City Districts decide themselves on locations and dates of VOKs’ placement pursuant to their own needs to locations announced in advance. The large-capacity container locations are, inter alia, stated at the Internet pages of respective City Districts. The citizens may also turn bulky waste into the collecting yards operated by the Prague City Hall. Some City District reimburses the installation of more VOKs.

Tab. B4.10 Production of mixed bulky waste [tonnes]

Year

VOK at the streets

Collecting yards of the City

Total

1998

13,128

129

13,257

1999

16,095

673

16,768

2000

16,150

916

17,066

2001

16,282

1,417

17,699

2002

16,525

2,212

18,737

2003

16,902

3,149

20,051

2004

17,601

6,891

24,492

2005

20,527

9,923

30,450

2006

17,991

13,900

31,891

Source: OOP MHMP


B4.2.8 Collection of bags filled with leaves attacked by horse chestnut leaf miner

In Prague horse chestnuts has been attacked by horse chestnut leaf miner for several years. The most effective method, how to protect trees against horse chestnut leaf miner, is removing off fallen leaves. For this reason the City Hall in cooperation with the City Districts, and collecting companies has been organizing collection of bags filled with attacked leaves for several years.

Citizens may pick up paper bags, where they can put raked leaves, at approx. 30 places on the territory of Prague (collecting yards, the Local Authorities of the City Districts, collecting companies’ premises). Citizens then may leave bags filled with leaves in specified collecting places (collecting yards, collecting companies’ premises) or in municipal waste incineration plant.

Tab. B4.11 Total costs of the collection of bags filled with leaves attacked by horse chestnut leaf miner (investment of Prague City Hall) [CZK thousands]

Year

Costs of bag production

Costs of collecting

Total costs (including VAT)

2002

130.5

106.6

237.1

2003

130.5

127.2

257.7

2004

70.0

136.3

206.3

2005

68.8

162.1

230.9

2006

45.8

162.4

208.3

Source: OOP MHMP


B4.2.9 Pilot projects

Pilot operation of the Composting Facility Malešice

In October 2004 the pilot operation of the first composting facility of the City of Prague “Composting Facility Malešice” was launched in Dřevčická Street 803/25, Prague 10 - Malešice. The composting facility is dedicated to the disposal of waste from the care for greenery both from citizens and from companies engaged in these activities. The biological waste is processed by means of anaerobic composting technology. 2,919 tonnes of waste were collected in 2006. The frequency of visits to the facility from March to December 2006 is approx. 330 visits per month on average. The facility was approved as a temporary structure and still has this status. The reason for is the planned construction of vast crossing. The original date of operation till the end of 2005 was already prolonged from the second time, this time to the end of 2009. If however the construction of crossing is started then the composting facility operation will be limited or stopped.

Pilot project of sorted biological waste collection

Pilot Project of Sorted Collection of Biological Waste on the territory of the Prague - Dolní Chabry City District (started in September 2004 by the Department of Infrastructure of the Prague City Hall) continued in 2005. The biological waste collection is, first of all, aimed at waste from gardens and gardening (foliage, grass, plant residues, branch pieces, fallen fruits) and partly on kitchen waste (residues of vegetables, fruit, teabags, coffee residue, and egg shells). For the Pilot Project there are in total 800 pieces of special brown plastic containers, so-called compostainers, 120 or 240 litres in volume, available which are located at the selected premises. The Project operator is the joint stock company of Prague Services, which delivers the waste to further processing (composting) to the composting facility JENA in Úholičky near Velké Přílepy. The project for sorted collection of biological waste has shown very good results. In the course of the ongoing project within the period from September 2004 to January 2007 approx. 643.2 tonnes of biological waste were sorted and processed.

Pilot project for sorted collection of plastics (paper) at elementary schools of Prague 10

In the frame work of environmental education development at elementary schools the Prague City Hall in cooperation with City District of Prague 10 organized pilot project considered on sorted collection of plastics and paper at elementary schools. The interview action was carried out at elementary schools in Prague 10. On the basis of its results the Department of Environmental Protection of the City District of Prague 10 launched the pilot project in cooperation with Prague Services in June 2006. At first of all the collecting vessels for sorted waste were placed to elementary schools.

Collecting vessel for plastic waste was put to all elementary schools, which gave an indication to join this action (23 schools) on the basis of interview. Nine schools gave an indication to collect paper. The schools, which have been participated in competition in the waste paper collecting already, gave an indication to join the pilot project as well (nevertheless there is indispensable amount of waste paper produced in interval between the competitive collections). 4.2 tonnes of plastics and 6 tonnes of paper were acquired in period from June 2006 to December 2006, whereas the quality of sorted components was high.


B4.2.10 Cleaning up of illegal dumpsites

Cleaning up of illegal dumpsites is organised annually on the territory of Prague. Cleaning is mainly organised at parcels owned by the City of Prague or its City Districts. In 2006 2,500 tonnes of waste was removed from illegal dumpsites at expenses of the Department of Environmental Protection of the City of Prague. In total there was 22 commissions realized for approx. CZK 3.8 million, without VAT. Indispensable amount of waste is cleaned up every year by the City District Authorities and by nonprofit organisations, which organise voluntary events.

Fig. B4.5 Amount of waste from illegal dumpsites cleaned up by the Department of Environmental Protection of the City of Prague [t]

Figure B4.5 Amount of waste from illegal dumpsites cleaned up by the Department of Environmental Protection of the City of Prague

Source: OOP MHMP


B4.2.11 Waste Management Plan of the City of Prague (Regional Waste Management Plan)

In 2005 the Waste Management Plan of the City of Prague was approved. This document serves as the background material for the waste originators, who exceed the legal limits and thus are obliged to develop the Waste Management Plan of the Waste Producer. In accordance with the Act No. 185/2001 Code, on waste and amending certain other acts in wording of the following regulations, the plan is evaluated annually. The evaluation for 2005 was carried out in November 2007. Detailed information can be found at the Internet Pages http://envis.praha-mesto.cz/odpady.


B4.2.12 Total costs of the complete municipal waste management system in Prague

Tab. B4.12 Total costs of the complete municipal waste management system in Prague

Total costs in CZK thousand

Year

Sorted collection
total

Bulky waste

Mixed waste

Hazardous waste

Collecting yards

Total

1998

18,772

22,115

396,694

4,432

1,549

443,562

1999

63,717

26,744

501,553

11,756

2,947

606,718

2000

82,906

30,239

505,018

10,476

5,222

633,861

2001

88,823

32,674

532,409

15,913

5,580

675,399

2002

109,661

32,879

563,647

19,566

6,277

732,029

2003

140,833

33,835

583,760

23,624

11,391

793,443

2004

177,560

37,816

644,685

25,341

18,689

904,091

2005

195,454

46,203

697,755

20,842

28,801

989,055

2006

219,051

42,501

717,813

6,646

30,232

1,016,243

Note: Costs for paper, glass, and plastics are given after the deduction of potential revenues from the sale of sorted raw materials.

Source: OOP MHMP

Contribution from the company of EKO-KOM, a. s.

The major portion of the sorted waste collection of paper, glass, plastics, and beverage cardboxes comprises of packages. Till 2001 the collection of returned packages on the territory of the Czech Republic was provided for by means of so-called Voluntary Agreement concluded in between the Czech Industrial Association for Packages and the Environment and the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic. On the basis of the Voluntary Agreement the Prague City Hall signed an agreement with the authorised packaging company of EKO-KOM, a. s. in 2001. Since the Act on Packages was adopted the obliged entities must provide for returned packages collection or for the collection from these packages and may do so by means of so-called authorised company (as EKO-KOM, a. s.).

In 2006 reimbursement from the company of EKO-KOM, a. s. was CZK 90,575 million.

Reimbursement of costs for the collection, transport, and disposal of medicines by the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic

Based on the amended Act on Medicines the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic have been reimbursing costs related to the collection, transport, and disposal of medicines from pharmacies since January 2003. In 2003 the subsidy accounted for CZK 1,676,682, in 2004 it was CZK 1,509,013.80, in 2005 it was CZK 1,361,614.30. In 2006 the subsidy made CZK 815,148.10.

Subsidies from the State Environmental Fund of the Czech Republic

The City of Prague received the subsidy from the State Environmental Fund of the Czech Republic which fully covers the collection of refrigerators, including appropriate disposal thereof. The subsidy amount depends on the amount of collected and disposed refrigerators. On the basis of a decision of the Minister of the Environment of the Czech Republic the City should receive CZK 31,710,000. But re-taking of refrigerators was established on 13th August 2005. Appendices No. 2 from 2006 to contract with the State Environmental Fund appointed the maximal subsidy from SEF of CZK 25,120,000.

Out of this amount in 2005 the City received approx. CZK 17 million, in November 2006 City received subsidy of CZK 4.5 million (90 % of costs for refrigerators collected in 2001 to 2005). The remaining amount approx. CZK 2.5 million, should be reimbursed in 2007.

In 2002 the City of Prague received the subsidy from the State Environmental Fund of the Czech Republic at the amount of CZK 4,310,000 for the construction of the collecting yard Spořilov.

Tab. B4.13 Total costs minus revenues from the company of EKO-KOM (for sorted waste), from the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic (for drugs and medicines), and for revenues from State Environmental Fund of the Czech Republic (for the collection of refrigerators)

Total costs in CZK thousand

Year

Sorted collection total

Total

1998

18,772

443,562

1999

63,717

606,717

2000

82,906

633,861

2001

65,924

651,374

2002

70,130

688,488

2003

70,045

713,716

2004

106,467

826,194

2005

113,547

905,786

2006

128,476

925,668

Source: OOP MHMP

Authorised waste managements companies on the territory of Prague

The up-to-date list of waste management licences (pursuant paragraph 14 of Act No. 185/2001 Code on waste) can be found at the Internet pages: http://www.praha-mesto.cz/odpady/souhlasy.asp.

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waste
WASTE
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