B2.3 WASTE WATER

Legislation requirements for the waste water treatment in the Czech Republic

The Member States of the European Union are bound by the Council Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 on treatment of urban waste water (Directive 91/271/EEC). In the Czech Republic regulations on water management have been harmonised with EU directives and regulations by means of the Act No. 254/2001 Code, on water a amending certain acts (hereinafter as the Water Act), which became effective on 1 January 2002 and has been amended several times since then. Pursuant to Section 38, paragraph 5 the Government of the Czech Republic shall establish acceptable values of pollution for waste water discharge into water courses and shall does so in its order.

Therefore on 29 January 2003 the Government approved the new Order of Government No. 61, “on indicators and values of acceptable pollution of surface water and waste water, on details of the permit for the waste water discharge into surface water and into sewerage systems, and on sensitive areas”, which became valid on 1 March 2003.

Just for the sake of getting oriented in the issues let us compare requirements of immission standards of the Order of the Government of the Czech Republic No. 61/2003 Code (hereinafter as the OG No. 61) and those of the EU Directive for quality of waste water discharged.

Tab. B2.10a Emission standards of indicators of acceptable waste water pollution pursuant to the Order of the Government of the Czech Republic No. 61/2003 Code

Velikost zdroje (EO)
Source size (p.e.)

BSK5
BOD
[mg.l-1]

CHSKCr
CODCr
[mg.l-1]

NL
Insoluble matter
[mg.l-1]

N-NH4+
[mg.l-1]

Ncelk*
Ntotal*
[mg.l-1]

Pcelk*
Ptotal*
[mg.l-1]

p

m

p

m

p

m

p

m

p

m

p

m

501–2000

30

60

125

180

35

70

2001–10 000

25

50

120

170

30

60

15

30

10 001–100 000

20

40

90

130

25

50

15

20

2

6

Nad / Over 100 000

15

30

75

125

20

40

10

20

1

3

* “p” values are acceptable concentrations and may be exceeded within a tolerable extent, which is established in the Annex No. 5 to the OG No. 61 (approx. in 10% of all determinations). “p*” values for Ntotal* and Ptotal* are yearly averages. “m” values are maximum concentrations, which may not be exceeded.

Tab. B2.10b The Council Directive 91/271/EEC

Zdroj znečištění (EO)
Pollution source (p.e.)

BSK5
BOD
[mg.l-1]

CHSKCr
CODCr
[mg.l-1]

NL
Insoluble matter
[mg.l-1]

Ncelk*
Ntotal*
[mg.l-1]

Pcelk*
Ptotal*
[mg.l-1]

2000–10 000

25

125

60

10 001–100 000

25

125

35

15

2

Nad / Over 100 000

25

125

35

10

1

* Only for sensitive areas, year average is evaluated. Values of other indicators may be exceeded within a tolerable extent. The tolerable extent is the same as that in the OG No. 61, in which the table of exceedances was taken over from the Directive. The maximum values, which may not be exceeded, can attain double the values given.

It follows from the tables presented that requirements for the pollution discharged along with waste water in the EU Directive are less strict than those imposed in the Czech Republic. Therefore it can be stated that the Order of the Government of the Czech Republic No. 61/2003 Code introduced very strict limit values in a uniform manner, which in turn would lead to retrofits of waste water treatment plants with capacity over 10,000 p.e., which would otherwise meet the requirements of the Council Directive 91/271/EEC (except for sensitive areas). The advantage of the Council Directive 91/271/EEC is it enables the Member States to set priorities in water protection by means of the establishing of so-called “sensitive areas” and to proceed at the revisions required every fourth year depending on, among others, their economic potential.

The Government of the Czech Republic, however, robbed the citizens of the Czech Republic of this advantage “to proceed depending on its economic potential” by adopting the Order No. 61, in which they declared the whole territory of the Czech Republic as the “sensitive area”. All waste water treatment plants in the Czech Republic must comply with conditions of the OG No. 61 by 31 December 2010 at the latest.

Disposal and treatment of sewage (urban waste water)

The downtown sewerage system was founded in Prague at the beginning of the last century as an integrated sewerage system taking the mixed sewage and rainwater in the same pipes. The newly built housing estates at the Prague outskirts have separated sewerage systems, which do not mix together sewage and rainwater and taking them away in separated systems. The housing estates sewerage systems are connected to main sewers of the Integrated Centralised Sewerage System in the downtown. This system disposes water to the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant (CWWTP) on the Cesar Island in Bubeneč. Besides this Central WWTP, there are other auxiliary (local) waste water treatment plants (24 in total) under operation or construction on the City territory, which mostly sewerage systems are led into (only 3 WWTPs have integrated sewerage systems) and serve smaller parts of the City, which in the past formed separate communities.

At present the CWWTP does not comply with the very strict requirements for discharged pollution in indicators of total nitrogen and total phosphorus pursuant to the new OG No. 61/2003 Code. Because the intensification of the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant (CWWTP) underwent, its stage Ia was designed in 1994 when limit values for discharged pollution were adjusted to then valid the Order of the Government No. 171/1992 Code where only ammonia nitrogen of nitrogen compounds had a limit value established. On the approval of the phase Ia the water management authorities granted the CWWTP the permission to discharge on 22 November 2000 on condition that the permission is issued for the period expiring on 31 December 2005. In order the CWWTP is compliant with the OG No. 61 requirements new investments are being prepared and therefore the water management authority issued the decision on the prolonged validity of the existing permit on 23 June 2005.

Values permitted by the Department of Development of the City of Prague Re. No. MHMP-76063/2000/VYS/Tr of 22 November 2000 for purified waste water discharge from the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant City of Prague into the Vltava River at the river kilometre 43.3 are as follows:

Tab. B2.11 Permitted amounts of waste water discharged

 

Q24

Qden / day

Qmax

Qrok / year

ÚČOV Praha
CWWTP Prague

6,0 m3.s-1

7,0 m3.s-1

8,2 m3.s-1

189 216 000,0 m3.rok-1 / m3.year-1

Value of Qmax is valid for one-hour period only

Tab. B2.12 Permitted values of selected indicators

 

BSK5
BOD
[mg.l-1]

CHSKCr
CODCr
[mg.l-1]

NL
Insoluble matter
[mg.l-1]

N-NH4+
[mg.l-1]

Pc
[mg.l-1]

Nanorg
Ninorg
[mg.l-1]

p

m

p

m

p

m

p

m

p

m

p

m

ÚČOV Praha / CWWTP Prague

20

40

80

140

25

70

12

18

1,8

4

22

32

Pro zimní období / In winter season

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

32

 

 

27

40

m = maximum acceptable value of concentration for analysis of simple samples of the waste water discharged
p = acceptable value of concentration for analysis of mixed samples of the waste water discharged

In 2003 the CWWTP operations were affected by repair of a great extent, the bad technical shape of low-pressure air blowers caused a year-long trouble. In order to ensure air supply into activated sludge tanks retrofitting of blower room is being prepared. Sludge management had permanent troubles with screw conveyors for dewatered sludge transport into silos since February 2004 and the operator was forced to dump sludge on an open area, which was assessed as accident concerning air pollution control. By the end of November 2004 an explosion occurred in the silo No. 1 causing mortal injury when an external subcontractor was carrying out failure repair. In order to use energy of biogas as much as possible the installing of the fifth co-generation unit was launched in the second half of 2004.

Despite the aforementioned troubles the annually discharged pollution from the CWWTP was lower than in the 2003 and substantially lower than the permitted amount of contaminants discharged in every of the indicators.

Tab. B2.13 Permitted and discharged annual amounts of the discharged pollutants from the CWWTP Prague in 2004

ÚČOV Praha
CWWTP Prague

BSK5
[t.rok-1]
BOD
[t.year-1]

CHSKCr [t.rok-1]
CODCr
[t.year
-1]

NL
[t.rok-1]
Insoluble matter
[t.year-1]

N-NH4+
[t.rok-1]
[t.year-1]

Pc
[t.rok-1]
[t.year-1]

Nanorg
[t.rok-1]
Ninorg
[t.year-1]

Povolené / Permitted

2 838,2

13 245,1

3 784,3

1 892,2

238,8

3 784,3

Vypouštěné / Discharged

803,0

5 230,0

1 380,0

640,0

138,0

2 546,0

The values are taken from the yearbook: Evaluation of the WWTP operations of the PVK, a. s.

Yet the pollution discharged from the CWWTP is not the only source of pollution to the recipient watercourses. As mentioned above in rainy periods the integrated sewerage system separates a portion of the mixed waste water and takes it directly to recipient watercourses. Yet within the total annual balance of the pollution discharged this way is not important.

Tab. B2.14 Maximums and averages attained at the CWWTP in 2004

Ukazatel kvality
Quality indicator
[mg.l-1]

Přítok ÚČOV
Inflow
to the CWWTP

(max)

Odtok ÚČOV
Discharge from
the CWWTP

(max)

Přítok ÚČOV
Inflow to the CWWTP

Odtok ÚČOV
Discharge from the CWWTP

průměr 2004
Average in 2004

průměr 2004
Average in 2004

BSK5 / BOD5

400,0

24,7

237,6

6,40

CHSK / COD

1 100,0

141,3

612,9

41,70

Nerozp. látky / Insoluble matter

1 080,0

80,0

393,0

11,00

N-NH4

54,1

25,5

29,7

5,10

Nanorg / Ninorg

54,8

34,3

30,9

18,00

Nc / Ntotal

71,2

34,5

54,5

20,30

Pc / Ptotal

11,0

2,6

7,7

1,05

Source: PVK, a. s.

Average inflow of waste water into the CWWTP in 2004 was 3.97 m3.s-1, which means a moderate yet permanent annual decrease in inflow compared to yearly average of the previous years.

The pollution produced, which is taken out with waste water to the CWWTP is limited by means of the Sewerage System Code. The PVK, a. s. has a department, which carries out checks of pollution producers in terms of their compliance with the Sewerage System Code.

Tab. B2.15 Results of inspections of the Sewerage System Code compliance, 1999–2004

Odvětví
Industry

Počet odebraných vzorků / Number of samples taken

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Celk.
Total

Překr.
Excd.

Celk.
Total

Překr.
Excd.

Celk.
Total

Překr.
Excd.

Celk.
Total

Překr.
Excd.

Celk.
Total

Překr.
Excd.

Celk.
Total

Překr.
Excd.

Strojírenství
a elektrotechnika
Machinery and
electric industry

144

36

163

111

200

116

236

98

295

134

383

122

Chemie
Chemical industry

60

28

61

39

86

28

89

37

56

17

66

22

Energetika
Energy industry

21

4

19

6

31

11

12

1

11

1

5

1

Potravinářství
Food industry

60

24

52

27

63

31

74

33

34

29

61

31

Polygrafie
Printing industry

8

2

7

3

10

7

17

7

6

1

12

5

Ostatní / Others

87

18

82

31

129

51

244

114

24

7

42

33

Celkem / Total

380

112

384

217

519

244

672

290

426

189

569

214

%

 

30

 

57

 

47

 

43

 

44

 

38

Source: PVK, a. s.

It follows from the table that in 2004 the PVK, a. s. increased the number of checked entities by 33 % and even though the percentage of exceeded values was lower than in 2003 the total number of exceedances confirmed still persisting essential lack of discipline of respective producers in compliance with water management permit and with the Sewerage System Code.

Tab. B2.16 Contents of selected metals in pressed digested sludge from the CWWTP in the period 1996–2004 compared to values of 1989 [mg.kg-1]

Rok
Year

Chrom
Chromium

Olovo
Lead

Měď
Copper

Zinek
Zinc

Kadmium
Cadmium

Nikl
Nickel

Kobalt
Cobalt

Rtuť
Mercury

1989

742,0

400,0

713,0

2 333,0

22,8

121,0

 

1996

128,4

216,0

356,7

1 681,0

4,9

75,6

74,0

4,9

1997

73,1

191,8

338,1

1 395,0

5,3

58,4

5,2

2,7

1998

79,6

125,1

326,2

1 198,0

4,2

46,5

5,5

2,6

1999

149,6

93,3

266,0

1 144,0

4,0

42,0

8,9

3,9

2000

193,0

89,0

308,0

1 314,0

5,1

41,1

10,1

4,4

2001

227,0

81,0

298,0

1 612,0

3,8

46,5

9,3

3,8

2002

311,0

83,0

322,0

1 544,0

3,6

55,3

9,8

3,1

2003

271,0

119,0

359,0

2 424,0

6,7

67,2

8,7

4,0

2004

143,0

49,0

203,0

1 819,0

1,7

43,0

6,8

1,7

Max 2004

1 100,0

84,0

300,0

5 000,0

3,7

150,0

16,0

8,8

Limit dle TNV
Limit pursuant to TNV

1 000,0

500,0

1 200,0

3 000,0

13,0

200,0

10,0

Vyhláška č. 382/01 Sb.
Decree No. 382/01 Code

200,0

200,0

500,0

2 500,0

5,0

100,0

4,0

Note: For the sake of information there are limit values of selected metals for the permitted sludge usage:
a) for the production of industrial composts pursuant to the Czech Standard ČSN 46 5735 effective since 1 June 1991;
b) into agricultural land pursuant to the Decree No. 382/2001 Code, effective since 1 January 2002 and giving limit concentrations.

Source: PVK, a. s.

The table here above give yearly averages for respective years. Because the Decree of the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic No. 382/2001 Code, on conditions of the usage of treated sludge on agricultural land, establishes limit values of concentrations of selected hazardous materials for the application onto agricultural land, their maximum values determined in 2004 are also given there just for illustration. It may be seen from the maximum values determined for chromium, zinc, and nickel, that the application of sludge both onto agricultural land and for the production of industrial compost was troublesome.

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